Spatial and temporal variability in the effects of wildfire and drought on thermal habitat for a desert trout (ScienceDirect Publication: Journal of Arid Environments)

Publication date: Available online 19 June 2017
Source:Journal of Arid Environments
Author(s): L.D. Schultz, M.P. Heck, D. Hockman-Wert, T. Allai, S. Wenger, N.A. Cook, J.B. Dunham
We studied how drought and an associated stressor, wildfire, influenced stream flow permanence and thermal regimes in a Great Basin stream network. We quantified these responses by collecting information with a spatially extensive network of data loggers. To understand the effects of wildfire specifically, we used data from 4 additional sites that were installed prior to a 2012 fire that burned nearly the entire watershed. Within the sampled network 73 reaches were classified as perennial, yet only 51 contained surface water during logger installation in 2014. Among the sites with pre-fire temperature data, we observed 2–4 °C increases in maximum daily stream temperature relative to an unburned control in the month following the fire; effects (elevated up to 6.6 °C) appeared to persist for at least one year. When observed August mean temperatures in 2015 (the peak of regionally severe drought) were compared to those predicted by a regional stream temperature model, we observed deviations of −2.1°-3.5°. The model under-predicted and over-predicted August mean by > 1 °C in 54% and 10% of sites, respectively, and deviance from predicted was negatively associated with elevation. Combined drought and post-fire conditions appeared to greatly restrict thermally-suitable habitat for Lahontan cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi).